Science database

As a science-driven company, we regularly publish peer-reviewed papers to validate the research we conduct. 

Most recent publications

Improving broiler performance at market age regardless of stocking density by using a pre-starter diet

Poultry
Broiler early nutrition has caught the attention of nutritionists due to the positive correlation between early growth rate and market weight. Early nutrition strategies such as low Ca levels or the use of highly digestible ingredients (e.g., spray-dried porcine plasma [SDPP]) have been reported to improve gut and muscle development, immunity, and overall growth of the bird. On the other hand, recent works suggested that stocking density represents the main constrain for modern chickens to express their full genetic potential. The current study aimed to elucidate the potential effects of pre-starter feedin
by R. Franco-Rosselló on 02/03/2022
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Tolerance and safety evaluation of L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid as a feed additive in broiler diets

Poultry
The novel chelator, L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA) can be used as a dietary ingredient to safely reduce Zn supplementation in complete feed, without compromising the Zn status of farm animals. The objective of this study was to study dietary tolerance, bioaccumulation, and evaluate the safety of GLDA when supplemented in broiler diets at 0, 100, 300, 1000, 3,000, and 10,000 mg/kg. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allocated to 48 pens and fed one of the 6 experimental diets. Production performance was used to assess tolerance to the additive. At trial end, toxicity was evaluated using hematology, plasma biochemistry (n = 144) and gross necropsy (n = 48). Residue levels of GLDA were assessed in liver, kidney and breast tissue
by G. M. Boerboom on 06/02/2022
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Tolerance and safety evaluation of L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid as a feed additive in broiler diets

Poultry
The novel chelator, L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA) can be used as a dietary ingredient to safely reduce Zn supplementation in complete feed, without compromising the Zn status of farm animals. The objective of this study was to study dietary tolerance, bioaccumulation, and evaluate the safety of GLDA when supplemented in broiler diets at 0, 100, 300, 1000, 3,000, and 10,000 mg/kg. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allocated to 48 pens and fed one of the 6 experimental diets. Production performance was used to assess tolerance to the additive. At trial end, toxicity was evaluated using hematology, plasma biochemistry (n = 144) and gross necropsy (n = 48). Residue levels of GLDA were assessed in liver, kidney and breast tissue of birds used for necropsy. Performance showed an increase (P < 0.05) in body weight for GLDA inclusion at 300 mg/kg. A decrease on the measured performance parameters was found for the 10,000 mg/kg GLDA inclusion level (P < 0.05). The additive was added as a tetra-sodium salt, leading to sodium levels being 2.5 times higher in the latter treatment compared to the control diet which may have led to impaired intestinal barrier function. Mortality was not different between treatments. Residue levels for GLDA at the highest inclusion indicate that 0.0005% of total GLDA consumption is accumulated in breast tissue. Higher values of GLDA were found in kidney and liver at the highest inclusion level, potentially confirming that the small fraction of GLDA absorbed was readily excreted by the animal. At 100 and 300 mg/kg GLDA inclusion there were negligible amounts of GLDA present in all tissues measured. The present experiment demonstrated a high dietary tolerance to GLDA in broilers and indicated that GLDA does not pose a significant risk to food safety when supplemented below 3,000 mg/kg.
by G. M. Boerboom on 20/12/2021
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The Efficacy of a Smectite-Based Mycotoxin Binder in Reducing Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity on Performance, Health and Histopathology of Broiler Chickens

Poultry
The aim of the experiment was to investigate the efficacy of a smectite-based clay binder (Toxo-MX) in reducing the toxicological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 450 one-day old male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten replicates of 15 birds each in a 42-day feeding experiment. The dietary treatments included a negative control (NC, a basal diet with no AFB1 and binder), a positive control (PC, a basal diet contaminated with 500 ppb of AFB1) and a smectite-based mycotoxin binder(Toxo-MX, PC with smectite clay binder). AFB1 challenge resulted in 14 to 24% depression in growth performance, elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), organ enlargement and immuno-suppression.As compared to PC, feeding of Toxo-MX improved the final weight (15%; p < 0.0001), average daily gain (ADG) (15%; p < 0.001) and feed efficiency of broilers (13%; p < 0.0003) but did not have any effects on liver enzyme activities. Supplementation of smectite claysignificantly increased serum globulin levels and reduced the weight of the liver (p < 0.05) as compared to AFB1-fed broiler chickens. The severity of lesions (inflammatory and degenerative changes) observed in the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and lymphoid organs in PC birds was reduced by feeding smectite clay. The immuno-suppression caused by AFB1 was moderately ameliorated in Toxo-MX groupby stimulating the production of antibodies against IBD at day 42 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of a smectite-based mycotoxin binder to the diet containing AFB1 improved growth performance, reduced toxicological effects in liver and improved humoral immune response in broilers, suggesting its protective effect against aflatoxicosis.
by Ismail Zabiulla on 01/12/2021
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Efficacy of a Synergistic Blend of Organic Acids and ß-1,4 Mannobiose on Cecal Salmonella Counts and Growth Performance in Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens: A Meta-Analysis

Poultry
Salmonella may cause serious diarrhea in consumers of poultry products. Control of Salmonella in poultry with antibiotics has caused antimicrobial resistance issues. Salmonella can colonize the gut of chickens, meaning that an in-feed solution may prevent infection. A synergistic blend containing organic acids and ß-1,4 mannobiose as main ingredients were developed to reach different parts of the gut. It was hypothesized that this synergistic blend decreases Salmonella contamination of chickens. Several, non-published, studies have been performed to test the effect of this synergistic blend in chickens infected with Salmonella. The results of these studies were combined into a large meta-analysis to draw conclusions regardless of study design and geographical location. This state-of-the-art statistical method did show that feeding the synergistic blend to chickens could decrease Salmonella in comparison to a control diet. This decrease was most clear during the first 14 days after initiation of the Salmonella infection. In addition, the birds did grow more efficiently when the synergistic blend was fed.
by S. J. A. van Kuijk on 17/10/2021
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Hydroxychloride trace elements improved eggshell quality partly by modulating uterus histological structure and inflammatory cytokines expression in aged laying hens

Hydroxychloride trace elements improved eggshell quality partly by modulating uterus histological structure and inflammatory cytokines expression in aged laying hens

Poultry
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of dietary zinc, copper, and manganese hydroxychloride (HC) supplementation on performance, minerals deposition, serum parameters, eggshell ultrastructure, uterus histological structure, and inflammatory cytokines in aged hens. A total of 560 Hyline Brown layers at 62 wk of age were randomly allotted into 3 groups (CON, basal diet without extra minerals supplemented; Sulphate and HC, basal diet with sulphate or hydroxychloride zinc, copper, and manganese supplementation at levels of 80, 15, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). The trial lasted for 16 wk consisting of 4 wk depletion period and 12 wk testing period. The results indicated that dietary hydroxychloride trace elements increased egg weight (P < 0.05) when compared with CON group and improved average Haugh unit and albumen height (P < 0.05) when compared with Sulphate group from 70 to 73 wk. Trace element supplementation significantly increased eggshell strength, ceruloplasmin content in serum, and modified crystallographic structure of eggshell (P < 0.05) that included effective layer height, palisade height, mammillary layer width, and mammillary internal area ratio, but the results did not differ regarding the trace mineral sources used. Furthermore, hens fed with hydroxychloride trace element showed the highest mucosal fold height (P < 0.05) and epithelial height (P = 0.053) in eggshell gland, as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and IL-22 (P = 0.094). It is concluded that supplementation of Zn, Cu, and Mn mixture modified eggshell quality partly through enhancing histological structure and immune responses of uterus. Hydroxychloride source of Zn, Cu, and Mn excelled sulphate in its beneficial effects for birds.
by Qiuyu Jiang on 05/10/2021
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Effect of Dietary Supplementation With Mixed Organic Acids on Immune Function, Antioxidative Characteristics, Digestive Enzymes Activity, and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

Poultry
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary supplementation with mixed organic acids on intestinal health, enzyme activity, and antioxidative characteristics in broilers. A total of 192 1-day-old chicks were evenly allocated to three experimental groups with eight replicates, a basal diet with 0 (Control), 3,000 mg/kg (LMOA), 6,000 mg/kg (HMOA) mixed organic acid. The tissue and serum samples were gathered on 21 and 42 d of the experiment. An increased (P < 0.05) concentration of IgA, D-lactate (D-LA), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the serum of broilers diets with HMOA was observed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase activity (CAT) in serum were enhanced (P < 0.05) with dietary and mixed organic acid, respectively, and increased (P < 0.05) content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT in the duodenum of broilers diets with LMOA was noticed. Also, LMOA decreased (P < 0.05) the pH value of the duodenum and enhanced (P < 0.05) the amylase activity of the pancreas, the tight junction protein (mainly Claudin-1, Claudin-2, and ZO-1) in the duodenum of broilers fed with mixed organic acid were promoted (P < 0.05), and the LMOA group performed better in the small intestine. In cecum microbiota, LMOA and HMOA modulated the structure of microbiota and mainly reduced the relative abundance of Escherichia coli. In brief, dietary supplemented mixed organic acid improved the health status of broilers by promoting the immune function, enhancing the antioxidative characteristics and tight junction proteins expression as well as cecum microbiota. However, LMOA groups may be a better fit considering the comprehensive effects of experiments and economic costs.
by Jiayu Ma on 16/09/2021
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Animal nutrition strategies and options to reduce the use of antimicrobials in animal production

Across species
Antimicrobial resistance is a global and increasing threat. Stewardship campaigns have been established, and policies implemented, to safeguard the appropriate use of antimicrobials in humans, animals, and plants. Restrictions on their use in animal production are on the agenda worldwide. Producers are investing in measures, involving biosecurity, genetics, health care, farm management, animal welfare, and nutrition, to prevent diseases and minimize the use of antimicrobials. Functional animal nutrition to promote animal health is one of the tools available to decrease the need for antimicrobials in animal production. Nutrition affects the critical functions required for host defence and disease resistance. Animal nutrition strategies should therefore aim to support these host defence systems and reduce the risk of the presence in feed and water of potentially harmful substances, such as mycotoxins, anti-nutritional factors and pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. General dietary measures to promote gastrointestinal tract health include the selective use of a combination of feed additives and feed ingredients to stabilize the intestinal microbiota and support mucosal barrier function. This knowledge, used to establish best practices in animal nutrition, could allow the adoption of strategies to reduce the need for antimicrobials and contain antimicrobial resistance.
by C. Smits on 29/07/2021
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Effect of L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid on the availability of dietary zinc in broiler chickens

Poultry
Chelating agents can be used to improve the nutritional availability of trace minerals within the gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a novel chelating agents, L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), a biodegradable alternative to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the nutritional bioavailability of zinc in broilers. Twelve dietary treatments were allocated to 96 pens in a randomized block design. Pens contained 10 Ross 308 male broilers in a factorial design with 6 incremental zinc levels (40, 45, 50, 60, 80, and 120 ppm of total Zn), with and without inclusion of GLDA (0 and 100 ppm) as respective factors. Experimental diets were supplied from day 7 to 21/22 and serum, liver and tibia Zn content were determined in 3 birds per pen. Growth performance and liver characteristics were not affected by dietary treatments, but both supplemental Zn and GLDA enhanced tibia and serum zinc concentration. The positive effect of GLDA was observed at all levels of the dietary Zn addition. The amount of zinc needed to reach 95% of the asymptotic Zn response was determined using nonlinear regression. When GLDA was included in the diet, based on tibia Zn, the same Zn status was achieved with a 19 ppm smaller Zn dose while based on serum Zn this was 27 ppm less Zn. Dietary GLDA reduces supplemental Zn needs to fulfill nutritional demands as defined by tibia Zn and serum Zn response. Considering the positive effect on the nutritional availability of Zn in broilers, GLDA presents an opportunity as biodegradable additive, to reduce Zn supplementation to livestock and thereby reducing Zn excretion into the environment, while fulfilling the nutrition Zn needs of farmed animals.
by G. M. Boerboom on 04/02/2021
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