Science database

As a science-driven company, we regularly publish peer-reviewed papers to validate the research we conduct. 

Most recent publications
Ruminants
High solubility of certain trace minerals (TM) in the rumen can alter nutrient digestibility and fermentation. The objectives of the present studies were to determine the effects of TM source on 1) nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation, 2) concentrations of soluble Cu, Zn, and Mn in the rumen following a pulse dose of TM, and 3) Cu, Zn, and Mn binding strength on ruminal digesta using dialysis against a chelating agent in steers fed a diet formulated to meet the requirements of a high producing dairy cow. Twelve Angus steers fitted with ruminal cannulae were adapted to a diet balanced with nutrient concentrations similar to a diet for a high producing lactating dairy cow for 21 d. Steers were then randomly assigned to dietary treatments consisting of 10 mg Cu, 40 mg Mn, and 60 mg Zn/kg DM from either sulfate (STM), hydroxychloride (HTM) or complexed trace minerals (CTM). The experimental design did not include a negative control (no supplemental Cu, Mn, or Zn) because the basal diet did not meet the National Research Council requirement for Cu and Zn. Copper, Mn, and Zn are also generally supplemented to lactating dairy cow diets at concentrations
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Mineral and glycerol concentrations in drinking water on body weight loss and acid-base balance in feed-deprived Holstein bulls

Ruminants
Situations in which cattle are feed-deprived over extensive periods of time are common in the context of transport and is an animal welfare concern which may also compromise growth and carcass yield grade. This study investigated how the main components of an oral rehydration solution would affect BW loss and blood parameters in feed-deprived bulls. Three dose–response experiments were performed with 24 bulls each (n = 6 per treatment) to study the effect of mineral concentration in Study I (0, 100, 200 and 300 mOsm/kg), the K+ to Na+ ratio in Study II (25:75, 40:60, 60:40 and 75:25), and glycerol concentration in Study III (0%, 1%, 2% and 4% of the final solution). The blocking factor was initial BW and treatments were randomly assigned within each block. Measurements included fluid intakes, BW, and blood parameters at 0, 24 and 48 h relative to the start of feed deprivation. In Study I, increasing mineral concentration in solution linearly decreased BW losses at 48 h. At 24 and 48 h, serum urea linearly decreased with increasing mineral concentration. At 48 h, blood K+ and Na+ linearly increased, resulting in increased blood osmolarity. Additionally, at 24 h feed deprivation, blood pH linearly increased with increasing osmolality. In Study II, BW losses decreased with i
by J. N. Wilms on 28/03/2022
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Protein Digestion Kinetics Influence Maternal Protein Loss, Litter Growth, and Nitrogen Utilization in Lactating Sows

Swine
Body protein losses in lactating sows have a negative impact on sow and litter performance. Improving dietary amino acid utilization may limit protein mobilization. The effects of dietary protein kinetics on sow body condition loss, blood plasma metabolites, and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and also on litter gain during lactation, were investigated in this study. In total, 57 multiparous sows were fed one of three lactation diets with the same crude protein level: low level of slow protein diet (LSP) (8% slowly degradable protein of total protein), medium level of slow protein diet (MSP) (12% slowly degradable protein of total protein), or high level of slow protein diet (HSP) (16% slowly degradable protein of total protein) in a complete block design. Our results showed that HSP sows lost the least body wei
by Hao Ye on 21/03/2022
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Blood calcium dynamics in cows receiving an aqueous calcium suspension for voluntary consumption or a calcium bolus following parturition

Ruminants
The form of oral calcium (Ca) supplement and the Ca source influence Ca absorption dynamics resulting in different postpartum calcemia. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an oral Ca supplement (mainly CaCO3) offered for voluntary consumption would maintain or increase postpartum blood Ca to the same degree as a Ca bolus (mainly CaCl2) providing an equivalent dose of a Ca. A total of 72 Holstein cows were blocked by expected parturition date and parity. Within each block of 3 animals, cows were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, including an oral Ca supplement offered for voluntary consumption (Ca-drink, n = 23), an oral Ca bolus (Ca-bolus, n = 24), or an untreated group (CON, n = 25). Treatments were administered once within 15
by J. N. Wilms on 09/03/2022
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Improving broiler performance at market age regardless of stocking density by using a pre-starter diet

Poultry
Broiler early nutrition has caught the attention of nutritionists due to the positive correlation between early growth rate and market weight. Early nutrition strategies such as low Ca levels or the use of highly digestible ingredients (e.g., spray-dried porcine plasma [SDPP]) have been reported to improve gut and muscle development, immunity, and overall growth of the bird. On the other hand, recent works suggested that stocking density represents the main constrain for modern chickens to express their full genetic potential. The current study aimed to elucidate the potential effects of pre-starter feedin
by R. Franco-Rosselló on 02/03/2022
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Tolerance and safety evaluation of L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid as a feed additive in broiler diets

Poultry
The novel chelator, L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA) can be used as a dietary ingredient to safely reduce Zn supplementation in complete feed, without compromising the Zn status of farm animals. The objective of this study was to study dietary tolerance, bioaccumulation, and evaluate the safety of GLDA when supplemented in broiler diets at 0, 100, 300, 1000, 3,000, and 10,000 mg/kg. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allocated to 48 pens and fed one of the 6 experimental diets. Production performance was used to assess tolerance to the additive. At trial end, toxicity was evaluated using hematology, plasma biochemistry (n = 144) and gross necropsy (n = 48). Residue levels of GLDA were assessed in liver, kidney and breast tissue
by G. M. Boerboom on 06/02/2022
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Invited review: Remediation strategies for mycotoxin control in feed

Across species
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of different species of fungi. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are the main mycotoxins contaminating animal feedstuffs. These mycotoxins can primarily induce hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, consequently cause adverse effects on the health and perfor
by Meng Liu on 27/01/2022
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Dietary L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid improves short-term maintenance of zinc homoeostasis in a model of subclinical zinc deficiency in weaned piglets

Swine
This study compared the Zn response in selected tissues of weaned piglets fed L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), while challenged with short-term subclinical Zn deficiency (SZD). During a total experimental period of eight days, 96 piglets were fed restrictively (450 g/d) a high phytate (9 g/kg) diet containing added Zn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 45 and 75 mg/kg with and without 200 mg/kg of GLDA. No animals showed signs of clinical Zn deficiency and no phenotypical differences were observed. Broken line analysis of Zn status parameters such as liver Zn and apparently absorbed Zn indicated that the gross Zn requirement threshold was around 55 mg/kg diet. Supplementation of Zn above this threshold led to a saturation of the response in apparently absorbed Zn and linear increase in liver Zn. Bone and serum Zn responded to the dose in a linear fashion, likely d
by G. M. Boerboom on 11/01/2022
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Fatty acid profile characterization in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk of primi- and multiparous cows during the first week of lactation

Ruminants
The specific fatty acid (FA) profile of colostrum may indicate a biological requirement for neonatal calves. The objective of this study was to characterize the FA profile and yields in colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows. Colostrum was milked from 10 PP and 10 MP Holstein cows fed the same pre- and postpartum rations. Milkings (M) 2 to 5 and 12 were respectively termed transition and mature milk. Overall, short-chain FA (C4:0 and C6:0) were 61 and 50% lower in colostrum than mature milk, respectively. A parity by milking interaction was also present, with higher C4:0 for PP cows at M2 and for MP cows at M12. Additionally, higher concentrations of C6:0 were present for PP cows at M2 through M4 and for MP cows at M12. Palmitic (C16:0) and myristic (C14:0) acids were 16% and 27% higher in colostrum than mature milk, respectively. However, total saturated FA remained relatively stable. Branched-chain FA were 13% lower in colostrum than mature milk and higher in PP than MP cows throughout the milking period. The proportion of trans-monounsaturated FA (MUFA) was 42% higher in PP cows throughout the milking period, as well as 15% lower in colostrum than mature milk. In contrast, cis-MUFA and total MUFA were not affected by milking nor parity. Linoleic acid (LA) was 13% higher in colostrum than transition and mature milks, but α-linolenic acid (ALA) did not differ. Consequently, the ratio of LA to ALA was 23% higher in colostrum than mature milk and 25% higher in MP cows. Linoleic acid was also 13% higher in MP cows, whereas ALA was 15% higher in PP cows. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis-9,trans-11) was 63% higher in PP cows, and no differences between colostrum and mature milk were detected. Overall, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) from the n-6 and n-3 series were over 25% higher in colostrum compared with transition and mature milk. Milking by parity interactions were present for arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-3 PUFA, translating to higher proportions in PP cows in M1 to M3, whereas proportions remained relatively stable throughout the milking period in MP cows. Despite increasing milk yields throughout the subsequent milkings, higher yields of EPA, ARA, DPA, and DHA were present in colostrum than in mature milk. Greater proportions and yields of n-3 and n-6 FA in colostrum may translate to specific requirements for newborn calves. Differences were also observed between PP and MP cows and may reflect different nutrient requirements and partitioning.
by J. N. Wilms on 11/01/2022
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Hydroxychloride trace minerals improve apparent total tract nutrient digestibility in Bonsmara beef cattle

Ruminants
The effect of hydroxychloride trace minerals (HTM) on nutrient digestibility in comparison with sulphate trace minerals (STM) was tested in Bonsmara beef cattle fed Eragrostis tef hay as roughage, with high or low protein supplementation. Eight 12 month old Bonsmara beef heifers were housed individually and fed according to a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Two levels of protein supplementation, being 12.79% crude protein (CP) in the low protein concentrate and 30.16% CP in the high protein concentrate, were combined with two sources of trace minerals, being HTM and STM. All four diets contained 15 ppm added Cu, 50 ppm added Zn and 33 ppm added Mn. The Eragrostis tef hay roughage was fed ad libitum. The supplements including the minerals were fed separately daily at a fixed rate of 1.4 kg/heifer/day. Each period was 24 days starting with 18 days adaptation period followed by 6 days sampling period. The body weight and feed intake were measured during each period, to calculate growth performance. Feed and fecal samples were collected during sampling period and analyzed for nutrient digestibility, while acid insoluble ash was used as indigestible marker. On the last day of each period, rumen fluid was collected via a stomach tube for rumen pH and volatile fatty acid measurements.
by S. J. A. van Kuijk on 01/01/2022
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