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As a science-driven company, we regularly publish peer-reviewed papers to validate the research we conduct. 

Most recent publications
Ruminants
The effect of hydroxychloride trace minerals (HTM) on nutrient digestibility in comparison with sulphate trace minerals (STM) was tested in Bonsmara beef cattle fed Eragrostis tef hay as roughage, with high or low protein supplementation. Eight 12 month old Bonsmara beef heifers were housed individually and fed according to a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Two levels of protein supplementation, being 12.79% crude protein (CP) in the low protein concentrate and 30.16% CP in the high protein concentrate, were combined with two sources of trace minerals, being HTM and STM. All four diets contained 15 ppm added Cu, 50 ppm added Zn and 33 ppm added Mn. The Eragrostis tef hay roughage was fed ad libitum. The supplements including the minerals were fed separately daily at a fixed rate of 1.4 kg/heifer/day. Each period was 24 days starting with 18 days adaptation period followed by 6 days sampling period. The body weight and feed intake were measured during each period, to calculate growth performance. Feed and fecal samples were collected during sampling period and analyzed for nutrient digestibility, while acid insoluble ash was used as indigestible marker. On the last day of each period, rumen fluid was collected via a stomach tube for rumen pH and volatile fatty acid measurements.
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Tolerance and safety evaluation of L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid as a feed additive in broiler diets

Poultry
The novel chelator, L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA) can be used as a dietary ingredient to safely reduce Zn supplementation in complete feed, without compromising the Zn status of farm animals. The objective of this study was to study dietary tolerance, bioaccumulation, and evaluate the safety of GLDA when supplemented in broiler diets at 0, 100, 300, 1000, 3,000, and 10,000 mg/kg. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allocated to 48 pens and fed one of the 6 experimental diets. Production performance was used to assess tolerance to the additive. At trial end, toxicity was evaluated using hematology, plasma biochemistry (n = 144) and gross necropsy (n = 48). Residue levels of GLDA were assessed in liver, kidney and breast tissue of birds used for necropsy. Performance showed an increase (P < 0.05) in body weight for GLDA inclusion at 300 mg/kg. A decrease on the measured performance parameters was found for the 10,000 mg/kg GLDA inclusion level (P < 0.05). The additive was added as a tetra-sodium salt, leading to sodium levels being 2.5 times higher in the latter treatment compared to the control diet which may have led to impaired intestinal barrier function. Mortality was not different between treatments. Residue levels for GLDA at the highest inclusion indicate that 0.0005% of total GLDA consumption is accumulated in breast tissue. Higher values of GLDA were found in kidney and liver at the highest inclusion level, potentially confirming that the small fraction of GLDA absorbed was readily excreted by the animal. At 100 and 300 mg/kg GLDA inclusion there were negligible amounts of GLDA present in all tissues measured. The present experiment demonstrated a high dietary tolerance to GLDA in broilers and indicated that GLDA does not pose a significant risk to food safety when supplemented below 3,000 mg/kg.
by G. M. Boerboom on 20/12/2021
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The Efficacy of a Smectite-Based Mycotoxin Binder in Reducing Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity on Performance, Health and Histopathology of Broiler Chickens

Poultry
The aim of the experiment was to investigate the efficacy of a smectite-based clay binder (Toxo-MX) in reducing the toxicological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 450 one-day old male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten replicates of 15 birds each in a 42-day feeding experiment. The dietary treatments included a negative control (NC, a basal diet with no AFB1 and binder), a positive control (PC, a basal diet contaminated with 500 ppb of AFB1) and a smectite-based mycotoxin binder(Toxo-MX, PC with smectite clay binder). AFB1 challenge resulted in 14 to 24% depression in growth performance, elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), organ enlargement and immuno-suppression.As compared to PC, feeding of Toxo-MX improved the final weight (15%; p < 0.0001), average daily gain (ADG) (15%; p < 0.001) and feed efficiency of broilers (13%; p < 0.0003) but did not have any effects on liver enzyme activities. Supplementation of smectite claysignificantly increased serum globulin levels and reduced the weight of the liver (p < 0.05) as compared to AFB1-fed broiler chickens. The severity of lesions (inflammatory and degenerative changes) observed in the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and lymphoid organs in PC birds was reduced by feeding smectite clay. The immuno-suppression caused by AFB1 was moderately ameliorated in Toxo-MX groupby stimulating the production of antibodies against IBD at day 42 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of a smectite-based mycotoxin binder to the diet containing AFB1 improved growth performance, reduced toxicological effects in liver and improved humoral immune response in broilers, suggesting its protective effect against aflatoxicosis.
by Ismail Zabiulla on 01/12/2021
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Short-chain fatty acid administration via water acidifier improves feed efficiency and modulates fecal microbiota in weaned piglets

Swine
This study examined the effect of a water acidifier containing free and buffered short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-WA) on growth performance and microbiota of weaned piglets. In total, 192 male piglets, approximately 4 wk of age, were allocated to 24 pens (12 per treatment) with 8 piglets per pen. The piglets received either regular drinking water (negative control) or drinking water with the acidifier supplied at 2 L/1,000 L. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly on pen level. During the first 2 wk, daily visual assessment and scoring of the feces was conducted. Fecal samples of three piglets per pen were collected on days 14 and 42 for high-throughput sequencing analysis of the microbiota. Piglets offered SCFA-WA had significantly improved feed efficiency in the third week (P = 0.025) and over the whole study period (days 0 to 42, P = 0.042) compared with piglets in the negative control group, with a strong tendency observed during the first feeding phase (days 0 to 21, P = 0.055). Furthermore, the water acidifier group had a higher water intake than piglets provided with control water during the second feeding phase (days 21 to 42, P = 0.028) and over the whole study period (days 0 to 42, P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in body weight, average daily gain, or average daily feed intake (days 0 to 21, 21 to 42, 0 to 42). Furthermore, there was no overall significant difference in fecal scoring between the treatments. In terms of the fecal microbiota response, piglets offered the water acidifier showed a significantly higher relative abundance (RA) of genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and a lower RA of genus Streptococcus compared to the control. Furthermore, the redundancy analysis showed a positive association between improved feed efficiency and daily weight gain and RA of Butyricicoccus and Faecalibacterium. In conclusion, consumption of the water acidifier containing free and buffered SCFA modulated the microbiota and improved feed efficiency in piglets.
by M. M. Lingbeek on 16/11/2021
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Impacts of feeding organic acid-based feed additives on diarrhea, performance, and fecal microbiome characteristics of pigs after weaning challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli

Swine
Post weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli (ETEC) remains a major problem in the industry, causing decreases in performance and survival of weaned pigs. Traditionally, antimicrobials have been used for its mitigation/control. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of two organic acid (OA)-based commercial feed additives, Presan FX [an OA, medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) and phenolic compound-based product] and Fysal MP (free and buffered OA based on formic acid), would reduce PWD and improve post-weaning performance in pigs challenged with an F4-ETEC. This combination was assessed against a Negative control diet without any feed additives and a diet containing amoxicillin. Combined with a reduction in temperature during the infection period, inoculation with F4-ETEC resulted in 81% of pigs developing diarrhea, but with no differences between treatments (P > 0.05). However, between days 14 to 20 of the study and due to colonization by Salmonella serovars, pigs fed the combination of Presan FX and Fysal MP showed less (P = 0.014) diarrhea commensurate with a lower (P = 0.018) proportion of Salmonella numbers relative to total bacterial numbers. This caused less (P = 0.049) therapeutic antibiotic administrations relative to the diet with amoxicillin during this time. The diversity of bacteria within amoxicillin-treated pigs was lower (P = 0.004) than the diversity in control or Presan FX + Fysal MP-treated pigs (P = 0.01). Pair-wise comparisons showed that amoxicillin-treated pigs had altered (P < 0.001) fecal microbial communities relative to both Presan FX + Fysal MP-treated pigs and control pigs. Amoxicillin-treated pigs were characterized by an increased abundance of bacterial families generally linked to inflammation and dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), whereas Presan FX + Fysal MP-treated pigs had an increased abundance of bacterial families considered beneficial commensals for the GIT. Control pigs were characterized by an increased abundance of Spirochaetaceae associated with healthy piglets, as well as bacterial families associated with reduced feed intake and appetite. The combination of two OA-based feed additives did not reduce the incidence of F4 ETEC-associated diarrhea nor enhance performance. However, the combination markedly reduced diarrhea caused by Salmonella that occurred following the ETEC infection, commensurate with less therapeutic administrations relative to the diet with amoxicillin.
by John R Pluske on 09/11/2021
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Efficacy of a Synergistic Blend of Organic Acids and ß-1,4 Mannobiose on Cecal Salmonella Counts and Growth Performance in Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens: A Meta-Analysis

Poultry
Salmonella may cause serious diarrhea in consumers of poultry products. Control of Salmonella in poultry with antibiotics has caused antimicrobial resistance issues. Salmonella can colonize the gut of chickens, meaning that an in-feed solution may prevent infection. A synergistic blend containing organic acids and ß-1,4 mannobiose as main ingredients were developed to reach different parts of the gut. It was hypothesized that this synergistic blend decreases Salmonella contamination of chickens. Several, non-published, studies have been performed to test the effect of this synergistic blend in chickens infected with Salmonella. The results of these studies were combined into a large meta-analysis to draw conclusions regardless of study design and geographical location. This state-of-the-art statistical method did show that feeding the synergistic blend to chickens could decrease Salmonella in comparison to a control diet. This decrease was most clear during the first 14 days after initiation of the Salmonella infection. In addition, the birds did grow more efficiently when the synergistic blend was fed.
by S. J. A. van Kuijk on 17/10/2021
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Hydroxychloride trace elements improved eggshell quality partly by modulating uterus histological structure and inflammatory cytokines expression in aged laying hens

Hydroxychloride trace elements improved eggshell quality partly by modulating uterus histological structure and inflammatory cytokines expression in aged laying hens

Poultry
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of dietary zinc, copper, and manganese hydroxychloride (HC) supplementation on performance, minerals deposition, serum parameters, eggshell ultrastructure, uterus histological structure, and inflammatory cytokines in aged hens. A total of 560 Hyline Brown layers at 62 wk of age were randomly allotted into 3 groups (CON, basal diet without extra minerals supplemented; Sulphate and HC, basal diet with sulphate or hydroxychloride zinc, copper, and manganese supplementation at levels of 80, 15, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). The trial lasted for 16 wk consisting of 4 wk depletion period and 12 wk testing period. The results indicated that dietary hydroxychloride trace elements increased egg weight (P < 0.05) when compared with CON group and improved average Haugh unit and albumen height (P < 0.05) when compared with Sulphate group from 70 to 73 wk. Trace element supplementation significantly increased eggshell strength, ceruloplasmin content in serum, and modified crystallographic structure of eggshell (P < 0.05) that included effective layer height, palisade height, mammillary layer width, and mammillary internal area ratio, but the results did not differ regarding the trace mineral sources used. Furthermore, hens fed with hydroxychloride trace element showed the highest mucosal fold height (P < 0.05) and epithelial height (P = 0.053) in eggshell gland, as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and IL-22 (P = 0.094). It is concluded that supplementation of Zn, Cu, and Mn mixture modified eggshell quality partly through enhancing histological structure and immune responses of uterus. Hydroxychloride source of Zn, Cu, and Mn excelled sulphate in its beneficial effects for birds.
by Qiuyu Jiang on 05/10/2021
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Effect of Dietary Supplementation With Mixed Organic Acids on Immune Function, Antioxidative Characteristics, Digestive Enzymes Activity, and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

Poultry
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary supplementation with mixed organic acids on intestinal health, enzyme activity, and antioxidative characteristics in broilers. A total of 192 1-day-old chicks were evenly allocated to three experimental groups with eight replicates, a basal diet with 0 (Control), 3,000 mg/kg (LMOA), 6,000 mg/kg (HMOA) mixed organic acid. The tissue and serum samples were gathered on 21 and 42 d of the experiment. An increased (P < 0.05) concentration of IgA, D-lactate (D-LA), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the serum of broilers diets with HMOA was observed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase activity (CAT) in serum were enhanced (P < 0.05) with dietary and mixed organic acid, respectively, and increased (P < 0.05) content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT in the duodenum of broilers diets with LMOA was noticed. Also, LMOA decreased (P < 0.05) the pH value of the duodenum and enhanced (P < 0.05) the amylase activity of the pancreas, the tight junction protein (mainly Claudin-1, Claudin-2, and ZO-1) in the duodenum of broilers fed with mixed organic acid were promoted (P < 0.05), and the LMOA group performed better in the small intestine. In cecum microbiota, LMOA and HMOA modulated the structure of microbiota and mainly reduced the relative abundance of Escherichia coli. In brief, dietary supplemented mixed organic acid improved the health status of broilers by promoting the immune function, enhancing the antioxidative characteristics and tight junction proteins expression as well as cecum microbiota. However, LMOA groups may be a better fit considering the comprehensive effects of experiments and economic costs.
by Jiayu Ma on 16/09/2021
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Latest Advances in Sow Nutrition during Early Gestation

Swine
In the pig, the establishment and maintenance of luteal function in early gestation is crucial to endometrial function, embryo development, and survival. The level of feed intake has a positive effect on formation of luteal tissue and progesterone secretion by the ovaries in the pre-implantation period, which is important for endometrial remodeling and secretion. These effects are independent of luteinising hormone (LH) and probably driven by metabolic cues, such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and seem to support progesterone secretion and delivery to the endometrium, the latter which occurs directly, bypassing the systemic circulation. Even after implantation, a high feed intake seems to improve embryo survival and the maintenance of pregnancy. In this stage, luteal function is LH-dependent, although normal variations in energy intake may not result in pregnancy failure, but may contribute to nutrient supply to the embryos, since in this phase uterine capacity becomes limiting. Feed incidents, however, such as unintended fasting of animals or severe competition for feed, may result in embryo or even pregnancy loss, especially in periods of seasonal infertility. Specific nutrients such as arginine have a role in the vascularisation of the placenta and can improve the uterine capacity in the period after implantation.
by P. Langendijk on 16/09/2021
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Performance and greenhouse gas emission of Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore yearling bulls in tropical production systems during backgrounding and finishing

Ruminants
This study investigated the performance, carcass traits, and greenhouse gas emission of Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore yearling bulls raised under two [lenient (S1) and intensified (S2)] production systems during the backgrounding and finishing phases. S1 was practiced on a 18.6 ha palisade grass pasture, divided into eight paddocks, which was not fertilized and managed using continuous stocking at a constant rate of two animals per hectare during backgrounding. Then, 20 Nellore [initial body weight (BWi), 277±13 kg; initial age, 15.2±1.1 months] and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore (BWi, 304±21 kg; initial age, 15.8±0.44 months) yearling bulls were randomly allocated to four paddocks for each breed. During finishing, animals remained on the pasture and received high supplementation (at rate of 2.0 kg•100 kg−1 BW). S2 was practiced on a 11.4 ha palisade grass pasture, divided into six paddocks, which was fertilized (150 kg N•ha−1•year−1) and managed using continuous stocking at variables rates during backgrounding. Then, 24 Nellore (BWi, 288±16 kg; initial age, 15.6±0.65 months) and 24 F1 Angus × Nellore (BWi, 325±18 kg; initial age, 15.8±0.42 months) yearling bulls were randomly allocated to three paddocks for each breed. During finishing, the bulls were moved to feedlots. During backgrounding, F1 Angus × Nellore bulls in S2 achieved the highest average daily gain (ADG) and final shrunk body weight (SBWf), whereas Nellore bulls in S1 achieved the lowest ADG and SBWf. During finishing, ADG and SBWf were greater in S2 than in S1 as well as for F1 Angus × Nellore bulls than for Nellore bulls. From the beginning of backgrounding until the end of finishing, the ribeye area of F1 Angus × Nellore bulls in S2 was larger than that of other bulls. The greatest backfat deposition occurred during finishing, resulting in greater backfat thickness of bulls in S2 than that of bulls in S1. The carbon footprint of F1 Angus × Nellore bulls in S2 (10.8 kg•CO2e•kg−1 carcass) was similar to that of Nellore bulls in S1, but it was approximately 13% and 11.5% lower than that of Nellore bulls in S2 and F1 Angus × Nellore bulls in S1, respectively. This study demonstrated that the enhancement of productivity through improving genetic merit and pasture management is a suitable strategy to reduce environmental impact and achieve environmental sustainability.
by Erick Escobar Dallantonia on 16/09/2021
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